This piece was written for a project on China-Pakistan relations by Indian scholars. It is being published as a chapter in the book out of that effort.
The Historical Backdrop
Interface of Ideology & Islam
No further than electricity or steam;
Death to the heart, machines stand sovereign,
Engines that crush all sense of human kindness.
Betrayal by the United States
The Kashmir Question
1965 Indo-Pakistani War
Chinese were watching the situation closely, they would not risk for Pakistan what they had not risked for North Vietnam…China’s impact on the conflict issued precisely from the uncertainty surrounding its intentions…There can be no doubt that Chinese threats did influence Soviet and American behaviour. These two powers would have liked to support India. Had they been unencumbered by the Chinese factor, they would have felt free not only to aid India but also to put a great deal more pressure on Pakistan than they were actually able to do.
…the Chinese response to Pakistan’s appraisal of the situation could be best be described as one of neutrality. The reasons are to be sought in the reservations that China always have had with regard to the insurgency in Kashmir. It feared that the movement might spill over into its Muslim dominated province of Xingjiang.
1971 War: East Pakistan Secedes
China did what it could to support Pakistan in the United Nations, and after the war, it helped to pick up the pieces.
The Sino-Pak Collusion and India
Indo-US Nuclear Agreement and Sino-Pak ties
Changing Pakistani Perceptions